AFI Catalog of Feature Films
Movie Detail
Name Occurs Before Title Offscreen Credit Print Viewed By AFI
Director: Rob Marshall (Dir)
Release Date:   7 Feb 2003
Premiere Information:   Los Angeles premiere: 10 Dec 2002; Palm Springs, CA showing: 19 Dec 2002; New York and Los Angeles opening: 27 Dec 2002; addl openings: 3 Jan 2003
Production Date:   12 Dec 2001--late Apr 2002 in Toronto
Duration (in mins):   113
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Cast: In order of appearance Taye Diggs (Bandleader)  
    Cliff Saunders (Stage manager)  
    Catherine Zeta-Jones (Velma Kelly)  
    Renée Zellweger (Roxie Hart)  
    Dominic West (Fred Casely)  
    Jayne Eastwood (Mrs. Borusewicz)  
    Bruce Beaton (Police photographer)  
    Roman Podhora (Sergeant Fogarty)  
    John C. Reilly (Amos Hart)  
    Colm Feore ([Assistant District Attorney] Harrison)  
    Rob Smith (Newspaper photographer)  
    Sean Wayne Doyle (Reporter)  
    Steve Behal (Prison clerk)  
    Robbie Rox (Prison guard)  
    Chita Rivera (Nickie)  
    Queen Latifah (Matron Mama Morton)  
    Susan Misner (Liz)  
    Denise Faye (Annie)  
    Deidre Goodwin (June)  
    Ekaterina Chtchelkanova ([Katalin] Hunyak)  
    Mýa Harrison (Mona)  
    Joey Pizzi (Bernie)  
    Scott Wise (Ezekial Young)  
    Ken Ard (Wilbur)  
    Marc Calamia (Hunyak's husband)  
    Niki Wray (Veronica)  
    Greg Mitchell (Charlie)  
    Sebastian LaCause (Al Lipschitz)  
    Richard Gere (Billy Flynn)  
    Christine Baranski (Mary Sunshine)  
    Brendan Wall (Billy's assistant)  
    Cleve Asbury ("Gun" reporter #1)  
    Rick Negron ("Gun" reporter #2)  
    Shaun Amyot ("Gun" reporter #3)  
    Eve Crawford (Billy's secretary)  
    Bill Corsair (Newsreel announcer)  
    Bill Britt (Auctioneer)  
    Gerry Fiorini (Sailor)  
    Elizabeth Law (Perfume lady)  
    Lucy Liu (Kitty Baxter)  
    Joseph Scoren (Harry)  
    Monique Ganderton (Bare woman #1)  
    April Morgan (Bare woman #2)  
    Martin Moreau (Groin reporter)  
    Conrad Dunn (Doctor)  
    Cleve Asbury (Hospital reporter)  
    Jonathan Whittaker (Bailiff)  
    Rod Campbell (Jury foreman)  
    Brett Caruso (Harrison's assistant)  
    Sean McCann (Judge)  
    Jeff Clarke (Court clerk)  
    Patrick Salvagna (Newsboy)  
    Kathryn Zenna (Woman shooter)  
    Jeff Pustil (Club owner)  
  Female dancers: Roxanne Barlow    
    Joey Dowling    
    Melanie Gage    
    Michelle Johnston    
    Charley King    
    Mary Ann Lamb    
    Vicki Lambert    
    Tara Nicole    
    Cynthia Onrubia    
    Karine Plantadit-Bageot    
    Jennifer Savelli    
    Natalie Willes    
    Karen Andrew    
    Kelsey Chace    
    Catherine Chiarelli    
    Theresa Coombe    
    Lisa Ferguson    
    Melissa Flerangile    
    Michelle Galati    
    Sheri Godfrey    
    Brittany Gray    
    Karen Holness    
    Amber-Kelly MacKereth    
    Jodi-Lynn McFadden    
    Faye Rauw    
    Rhonda Roberts    
    Leigh Torlage    
    Faye Rauw    
    Robin Wong    
  Male dancers: Shaun Amyot    
    Ken Ard    
    Cleve Asbury    
    Ted Banfalvi    
    Harrison Beal    
    Paul Becker    
    Marc Calamia    
    Jean-Luke Coté    
    Scott Fowler    
    Edgar Godineaux    
    Billy Hartung    
    Sebastian LaCause    
    Darren Lee    
    Troy Liddell    
    Blake McGrath    
    Greg Mitchell    
    Robert Montano    
    Rick Negron    
    Sean Palmer    
    Desmond Richardson    
    Martin Samuel    
    Jason Sermonia    
    Jeff Siebert    
    Sergio Trujillo    
    Scott Wise    
  Acrobats: Stacy Clark Baisley    
    Megan Fehlberg    
    Rachel Jacobs    
    Rebecca Leonard    
    Erin Michie    
    Danielle Rueda-Watts    
  Female ensemble: Rozanne Barlow    
    Dana Calitri    
    Laura Dean    
    Margaret Dorn    
    Jocelyn Dowling    
    Melanie Gage    
    Capathia Jenkins    
    Kate Kaufman    
    Charley King    
    Mary Ann Lamb    
    Vicki Lambert    
    Audrey Martells    
    Tara Nicole    
    Cynthia Onrubia    
    Sara Ramirez    
    Nicky Richards    
  Male ensemble: Shaun Amyot    
    Cleve Asbury    
    Harrison Beal    
    Dennis Collins    
    Darius De Haas    
    Willie Falk    
    Scott Fowler    
    Edgar Godineaux    
    Billy Hartung    
    Curtis King    
    Darren Lee    
    Robert Montano    
    Rick Negron    
    Sean Palmer    
    Joey Pizzi    
    Desmond Richardson    
    Timothy Shew    
    Jeff Siebert    
    Fonzie Thornton    
    Eric Troyer    

Summary: On a January night in 1920s Chicago, Velma Kelly is arrested at the Onyx Club for murdering her husband and dancing-partner sister, who were having an affair. That same night, aspiring performer Roxie Hart begins an affair with furniture salesman Fred Casely, after Fred promises to introduce her to the club’s manager. A month later, Fred has had enough of Roxie and callously tells her he does not know the manager, she has no talent and they are through. When Roxie loudly protests, Fred pushes and threatens her, prompting her to grab a gun and shoot him three times. By the time the police arrive, Roxie has convinced her gullible husband Amos that the dead man was an intruder. Amos tells the police that he arrived home from his job at a garage and shot a burglar to protect his sleeping wife. However, when Amos learns that the dead man is Fred, who sold them their furniture, he knows Roxie has lied and lashes out at her, revealing everything. The police immediately arrest the defiant Roxie, and as she is taken away, Assistant District Attorney Harrison tells her that she has committed a hanging offense. Now frightened, Roxie is taken to the women’s prison where she is held on “murderesses’ row” with several other women accused of killing their lovers or husbands. Roxie’s spirits are temporarily revived by meeting the shrewish Velma, but she quickly learns that life in jail will be miserable unless she has money to bribe the prison matron, Mama Morton. Roxie learns how to advance herself, and although Velma remains hostile, Mama advises that she could use all of the publicity she has gotten not only to win her case, but fulfill her dream of going on the stage. For one hundred dollars, Mama says she will call criminal lawyer Billy Flynn, who has never lost a case. The still-loyal Amos goes to see Billy in his swank office, but has to admit that he can only raise $2,000 of Billy’s $5,000 fee. The high-living, greedy Billy initially refuses, then decides to take the case anyway, figuring he can raise the rest by auctioning off Roxie’s personal belongings through an intense publicity campaign. Velma is incensed that Billy, who is also her lawyer, would take the case and disgusted when she sees the change in Roxie that Billy has effected. Following Roxie’s arraignment, Billy tells eager reporters at a press conference on the courthouse steps, that Roxie, who now sports marcelled, light blonde hair, admits to shooting Fred, but it was self-defense: they both reached for the gun at the same time. Giving Roxie a fabricated background as an orphaned Southern belle reared in a convent school, Billy tells the press that her innocence was corrupted in Chicago by a combination of liquor and jazz. He tries to orchestrate Roxie’s remarks, but Roxie, who has decided to heed Velma’s warning that Billy is only out for himself, blurts out “I bet ya wanta know why I shot the bastard.” Reporter Mary Sunshine and the others love the tale that she and Billy concoct, and soon Roxie is headline news, pushing Velma’s story to the back pages. Everyone in Chicago seems to be enchanted by the innocent-looking Roxie, and the auction of her belongings brings in enough money to cover Billy’s fee and ensure Roxie a comfortable existence in jail. One night, Hawaiian pineapple heiress Kitty Baxter kills her lover and two women when she finds them in bed together. Seeing the press and Billy swarm around the snarling Kitty as she is brought into jail, Roxie feels her fame slipping away and feigns a collapse. When Mary Sunshine and Billy rush to her, Roxie shyly says she hopes the fall did not hurt “the baby.” Now a media darling again, Roxie tells the press that she is now only interested in protecting her unborn child. Velma is enraged by Roxie’s publicity, especially as Billy has lost interest in her own case, and complains to Mama, who tells her that she needs to play up to Roxie. Although Velma initially refuses to do that, she soon relents and asks Roxie if she would like to take over her sister’s part in her act. No longer impressed by Velma, Roxie coldly turns her down. Preparing for the start of her trial, Roxie objects to the demure-looking dress that Billy wants her to wear in court. The two argue over who is in charge and Roxie fires Billy, confident that her fame will get her acquitted without his help. A short time later, Katalin Hunyak, the only innocent woman on murderesses’ row, loses her last conviction appeal and is hanged, the first woman executed in Chicago in forty-seven years. Frightened now, Roxie gets Billy back on her case and promises to do whatever he wants to win. Despite Harrison’s best efforts, Billy dazzles the jurors and the judge with his tactics during Roxie's trial. While Roxie sweetly knits baby clothes, Amos takes the stand and admits that he has started divorce proceedings against her because he is not the father of her unborn child. Billy seizes the moment to make the befuddled Amos believe that he is the father, and after testifying, Amos embraces the misty-eyed Roxie and says that he wants to take her back. When Roxie takes the stand, she coyly raises her skirt to the all-male jury and testifies that she killed Fred in self-defense after she tried to break off their affair and he threatened her. Meanwhile, as Velma and Mama listen to Mary Sunshine’s radio broadcast of the trial, Velma seethes and Mama says that Roxie has abandoned all of her friends. They both brighten, though, when Mama shows her that she has Roxie’s diary in her possession. In court the next day, Velma is called by Harrison as a surprise rebuttal witness. During her testimony, she reads pages from Roxie’s diary that state she deliberately shot Fred and would do it again. Now faced with seemingly damning testimony, Billy cross-examines Velma and makes her admit that Harrison got her testimony in exchange for dropping all charges against her. Billy then suggests that Harrison concocted the phony diary pages to falsely convict Roxie. The jury quickly finds Roxie not guilty, but immediately after the verdict is read, shots ring out on the courthouse steps as a woman shoots her attorney dead. The reporters rush away, leaving the perplexed Roxie to ask what went wrong. Billy, who reveals that he arranged for the diary testimony, shrugs and tells her "this is Chicago" before leaving. Once alone with Roxie, Amos asks her to reconcile with him for the sake of the baby, but she turns him down, snarling that there was no baby and with all of her publicity, she will soon be a star. Over the next few weeks, Roxie tries to get a nightclub job but has no luck. After an unsuccessful audition at the Onyx, Velma grudgingly admits to her that she has talent and suggests that they team up because one "jazz killer" is nothing anymore, while the two of them together would be sensational. Roxie is reluctant at first, because she hates Velma, but Velma assures her that there is only one business in which that is not a problem. A short time later, Roxie and Velma are headliners at the Chicago Club, much to the delight of Billy, Mama and everyone else in Chicago. 

Production Company: Producer Circle Co.  
Production Text: A Zadan/Meron Production
Distribution Company: Miramax Film Corp. (The Walt Disney Company)
Director: Rob Marshall (Dir)
  Myron Hoffert (1st asst dir)
  John DeLuca (2d unit dir)
  Tom Quinn (1st asst dir, 2d unit)
  Felix Gray (1st asst dir, addl photog 2d unit)
  Grant Lucibello (2d asst dir)
  Michele Rakich (2d asst dir, 2d unit)
  Catherine Gourdier (2d asst dir, rehearsal unit)
  Tyler Delben (3rd asst dir)
  Joel Hay (3rd asst dir, 2d unit)
  Michael Manzato (Training asst dir)
  Joseph Finkleman (Training asst dir)
  Michaela Hudson (Training asst dir)
  Adam Bocknek (Trailer asst dir)
  Beverly Morgan (Trailer asst dir)
  David C. Sparkes (D.G.C. trainee, rehearsal unit)
  Barbara McCullam (D.G.C. trainee, rehearsal unit)
  Edney Hendrickson (D.G.C. trainee, 2d unit)
Producer: Martin Richards and the MMX-M Unit (Prod)
  Craig Zadan (Exec prod)
  Neil Meron (Exec prod)
  Sam Crothers (Exec prod)
  Bob Weinstein (Exec prod)
  Harvey Weinstein (Co-exec prod)
  Meryl Poster (Co-exec prod)
  Julie Goldstein (Co-exec prod)
  Jennifer Berman (Co-exec prod)
  Don Carmody (Co-prod)
  Dan Gallagher (Producer Circle Co. exec)
  Michael Milton (Producer Circle Co. exec)
  Jake Myers (Exec in charge of phys prod)
  Jennifer Lane (Exec in charge of post prod)
  Linda Borgeson (Exec in charge of post prod)
  John Eckert (Line prod, addl photog)
Writer: Bill Condon (Scr)
Photography: Dion Beebe (Dir of photog)
  Peter Benison (Dir of photog, 2d unit)
  Michael Kohnhorst (Dir of photog, Chicago unit)
  James Chressanthis (Dir of photog, addl photog)
  Jens Sturup (Dir of photog, addl photog 2d unit)
  Jules Fisher (Theatrical lighting des)
  Peggy Eisenhauer (Theatrical lighting des)
  Paul Gallo (Theatrical lighting, addl photog)
  Philip Rosenberg (Theatrical lighting asst, addl photog)
  Peter Rosenfeld (Cam op)
  Mark Cyre (1st asst cam)
  Carolyn Cox (1st asst cam, 2d unit)
  Neil Trafford (2d asst cam)
  Kirsta Teague (2d asst [cam], 2d unit)
  K. C. Capek (2d asst cam, Chicago unit)
  Michael Carr (Cam loader)
  Serhat H. Yalcinkaya (Cam trainee)
  Zachary Case (Cam trainee)
  Roger Finlay ("B" cam op)
  Jock Martin ("C" cam op)
  Yvonne Collins ("B" cam 1st asst)
  Noel Verhoog ("C" cam 1st asst)
  Beth Nobes ("B" cam 2d asst)
  Dennis Kim ("C" cam 2d asst)
  Bernie Branston (Tech lighting gaffer)
  Franco Tata (Gaffer)
  Michael McDonald (Gaffer, 2d unit)
  Richard Allen (Gaffer, addl photog)
  Roddy Ksub (Gaffer, addl photog 2d unit)
  Matt Taylor (Best boy gaffer, addl photog 2d unit)
  Paul Spaven (Rigging gaffer)
  Dave Breeze (Tech lighting best boy)
  Matthew Kirk Hudson (Virtuoso programmer)
  Geoff Frood (Dimmer board op)
  Douglas Hook (Dimmer board op)
  Dave Reppen (Dimmer board op)
  Dean Muto (Follow spots)
  William Meadows (Follow spots)
  Paul Quesnel (Follow spots)
  Mark Lapointe (Follow spots)
  Steve Van Denzen (Best boy, addl photog)
  Doug Black (Best boy elec)
  Barry Goodwin (Best boy elec)
  Bob Hicks (Best boy elec, 2d unit)
  Robert Hannah (Elec)
  Gord Eldridge (Elec)
  Eric Holmes (Elec)
  Don Caulfield (Elec)
  Tony Eldridge (Elec)
  John Sztejnmiler (Genny op)
  Dave Nicholson (Rigging elec)
  Graeme Rivers (Rigging elec)
  Mark Manchester (Key grip)
  Tim Sauder (Key grip, 2d unit)
  Kelly Borisy (Key grip, Chicago unit)
  Michael O'Connor (Key grip, addl photog)
  Malcolm Nefsky (Best boy grip)
  Peter Schalakowskyj (Best boy grip, 2d unit)
  Ed Lipscombe (Best boy grip, addl photog 2d unit)
  Tracy Shaw (Dolly grip)
  Owen Smith (Dolly grip, 2d unit)
  Jason Storandt (Dolly grip, Chicago unit)
  Robert Vigus (Grip)
  Ron Renzetti (Grip)
  Jim Kohne (Grip)
  Monty Montgomerie (Grip)
  John Vrakking (Grip, addl photog 2d unit)
  Robert Daprato (Key rigging grip)
  Peter Daprato (Asst key rigging grip)
  Glen Goodchild (Rigging grip)
  Steve Sheridan (Rigging grip)
  Jeff Heintzman (Rigging grip)
  Tony Dubreuil (Rigging grip)
  Guy Gervais (Rigging grip)
  Rob Nardi (Key flyman)
  Andre Ouimet (Flyman)
  Danielle LeBlanc (Video asst)
  Brendan Bresnahan (Video asst)
  Richard Pengelly (Video asst, 2d unit)
  David James (Stills photog)
  Rafy (Stills photog)
  Robert W. Faison (Cam tech, Chicago unit)
  William F. White Limited (Cam lighting and grip equipment)
  Arri Cam (Cam lighting and grip equipment)
  Vari*Lite (Automated lighting provided by)
  Pivotal Post (Post prod film equipment)
  Sound One (Post prod film equipment)
Art Direction: John Myhre (Prod des)
  Andrew Stearn (Art dir)
  Grant Van Der Slagt (Art dir, addl photog)
  Nancy Pankiw (1st asst art dir)
  Wayne Wightman (1st asst art dir)
  Brad Milburn (3rd asst art dir)
  Abbie Weinberg (3rd asst art dir)
  Paul Greenberg (Graphic des)
  Sean Breaugh (Illustrator)
  Beth Gilinsky (Art dept coord)
  Dominika Pyk (Art dept apprentice)
  Ron Hobbs (Storyboard artist)
Film Editor: Martin Walsh (Ed)
  Scott Richter (Assoc ed)
  David Rogow (Assoc ed)
  Andrew Weisblum (1st asst film/VFX ed)
  Eddie Nichols (Apprentice ed)
  Christine Hare (Apprentice ed, Toronto)
  Gary Fluxgold (1st asst digital ed, Toronto)
  Russell Langille (1st asst film ed, Toronto)
  Sonja Obljubek (2d asst film ed, Toronto)
  Christine Hare (Apprentice ed, Toronto)
  Deluxe Laboratories, Toronto (Lab services)
  Catherine Rankin (Negative cutter)
  Entertainment Post (Video dailies)
Set Decoration: Grant Van Der Slagt (Set des)
  Michael R. Shocrylas (Set des)
  Tom Carnegie (Set des)
  David Fremlin (Set des, addl photog)
  Gord Sim (Set dec)
  Paul Robinson (Set dec, addl photog)
  Marlene Rain (Buyer)
  Brenda McClennin (Buyer)
  Keith Sly (Lead man)
  Dan Wladyka (Lead man)
  David Evans (On set dresser)
  Christopher Geggie (Prop master)
  Mark Harmon (Prop master, 2d unit)
  Robert Cross (Prop master, addl photog 2d unit)
  Henry Jesiak (Asst prop master)
  Anna Boggild-Smith (Asst props, 2d unit)
  Michael Meade (Prop buyer)
  Brian Patrick (Props asst)
  Phil Tellez (Const coord)
  Jim O'Donoghue (Head carpenter/Foreman)
  Ming Yee (Asst head carpenter)
  Pat McCaffery (Loc head carpenter)
  Tony Parkin (Loc head carpenter)
  Sarah Ashton (Office asst)
  Alex Tellnow (Key metal fabricator)
  Bob Newman (1st asst metal fabricator)
  Kevin Forstner (Metal fabricator)
  Ivan Alamina (Metal fabricator)
  Aaron Dinsmore (Metal fabricator)
  Dan Brown (Carpenter/Laborer)
  Ricardo Burkhardt (Carpenter/Laborer)
  Gord Casselman (Carpenter/Laborer)
  Vince Donato (Carpenter/Laborer)
  Paul Dzatko (Carpenter/Laborer)
  Chris Hanson (Carpenter/Laborer)
  Pete Harwood (Carpenter/Laborer)
  Sal Larizza (Carpenter/Laborer)
  Mike Lotosky (Carpenter/Laborer)
  Brian Lumley (Carpenter/Laborer)
  Brian Murray (Carpenter/Laborer)
  Mike Newton (Carpenter/Laborer)
  Tom Osmond (Carpenter/Laborer)
  Paul Rapati (Carpenter/Laborer)
  Myles Roth (Carpenter/Laborer)
  Tom Sheehan (Carpenter/Laborer)
  Blaine Twyne (Carpenter/Laborer)
  Chuck Loriot (On set stand by carpenter)
  John Bannister (Key scenic artist)
  Janet Cormak (Asst scenic artist)
  Tim Campbell (Head painter)
  Luke Gibson (Asst head painter)
  Brad Francis (On set stand by painter)
  Rob Brooke (Painter)
  Pat Chard (Painter)
  John Flynn (Painter)
  Glenn Locke (Painter)
  Dave Myles (Painter)
  Victor Quon (Painter)
  Werner Schlatter (Painter)
  Karl Schneider (Painter)
  Charles Sharun (Painter)
  Mark Stafford (Painter)
  David Watts (Painter)
  Michael Sherwin (Head plasterer)
  Rick Brooks (Plasterer)
  Doug Rennie (Plasterer)
Costumes: Colleen Atwood (Cost des)
  Cori Burchell (Ward supv)
  Monica Wier (Ward supv, 2d unit)
  Christine Cantella (Key cost)
  Ian Drummond (Ward buyer)
  Andre Schulz (Set supv)
  Windy Kerwin (Asst set supv)
  Donna Butt (Asst set supv)
  Dale Wibben (Head cutter)
  Loreen Lightfoot (Cutter)
  Karen Naser (Cutter)
  Haydee Ramirez (Principal stitcher)
  Janice Skinner (Seamstress)
  Ritta Koleva (Seamstress)
  Susan Macleod (Seamstress)
  Trelawnie Mead (Dyeing/Breakdown)
  Heather Goodchild (Ward prod asst)
  Renée Bravener (Ms. Zellweger's dresser)
  Gerri Gillan (Ms. Zeta-Jones' dresser)
  Tommy Boyer (Mr. Gere's dresser)
  Capezio shoes/Ballet Makers Inc. (Footwear)
  Laducca Shoes, NYC (Footwear)
  Dennis Basso Furs (Furs for Ms. Zellweger & Ms. Zeta-Jones provided by)
  Neil Lane Antique & Estate Jewelry (Selected jewelry)
Music: Paul Bogaev (Mus dir and cond)
  Danny Elfman (Orig score mus wrt & prod)
  Steve Bartek (Orig score mus cond/Orch)
  Doug Besterman (Addl song/Score adpt cond)
  Bruce [L.] Fowler (Orch)
  David Krane (Addl score adpt and dance mus arr)
  Ric Wake (Exec mus prod)
  Randy Spendlove (Exec mus prod)
  Ric Wake (Cast recordings prod)
  Randy Spendlove (Cast recordings prod)
  Maureen Crowe (Mus supv)
  Matthew Sullivan (Assoc mus supv)
  Denis Tougas (Mus playback op)
  Jason McFarling (Mus playback op)
  Bill Bridges (Mus playback op)
  Elaine Overholt (Vocal coach)
  Annette Kudrak (Supv mus ed)
  E. Gedney Webb (Mus ed)
  Ellen Segal (Mus ed for Danny Elfman)
  Anne Pope (Asst orig score mus ed)
  Shie Rozow (Asst orig score mus ed)
  Jamie Lowry (Asst mus ed)
  Gisburg Smialek (Asst mus ed)
  Kenton Jakub (Lip sync ed)
  Missy Cohen (Lip sync ed)
  Paul Bogaev (Vocal arr, cast recordings)
  Doug Besterman (Orch, cast recordings)
  Michael Starobin ("Razzle Dazzle" orch, cast recordings)
  Perry Cavari (Drummer, cast recordings)
  Joel Moss (Rec eng, cast recordings)
  Dan Hetzel (Rec eng, cast recordings)
  Gustavo Celis (Pro tools eng, cast recordings)
  Jim Annunziato (Pro tools eng/2d eng, cast recordings )
  Dan Hetzel (Mixing eng, cast recordings)
  Air Studios (London mus sessions rec at)
  Alison Burton (Studio mgr, Air Studios)
  John Bailey (1st asst, Air Studios)
  Chris Barret (2d asst, Air Studios)
  Richard Barrie (Tech, Air Studios)
  Simon Knee (Tech, Air Studios)
  Isobel Griffiths (London musicians' contractor)
  Vic Fraser (London copyist)
  Marc Russell (Wake Productions coord)
  Derrick Watkins (Trumpet)
  Pete Beachill (Trombone)
  Owen Slade (Tuba)
  Chris Garrick (Violin soloist)
  David Hartley (Piano)
  Paul Morgan (Double bass)
  Perry Cavari (Drums)
  Mitch Dalton (Banjo/Jazz guitar)
  Gary Kettle (Percussion)
  Jamie Talbot (Reed 1: Soprano and alto sax/clarinet)
  Stan Saltzman (Reed 2: Soprano, alto and tenor sax/clarinet)
  Alan Barnes (Reed 3: Tenor and baritone sax/clarinet/bass clarinet)
  Ray Swinfield (Reed 3: Tenor and baritone sax/clarinet/bass clarinet)
  Metalworks Studios (Toronto vocals rec at)
  Avatar Studios (New York addl background vocals rec at)
  Cove City Sound Studios (Mus mixed at)
  Greg Calbi at Sterling Sound, New York City (Soundtrack mastered by)
  Miramax Films Music (BMI) (Orig score mus pub)
  Dennis Sands (Orig score mus rec and mixed by)
  Greg Dennen (Recordist)
  Marc Mann (MIDI supv and preparation by)
  Noah Snyder (Tech support)
  Joann Kane (Mus preparation)
  The Music Team (Orig score mus orch contracted by)
  Debbie Datz-Pyle (Orig score mus orch contracted by)
  Warner Bros. Eastwood Scoring Stage (Orig score mus rec and mixed at)
  Ryan Robinson (Tech eng)
  Rich Wheeler (Scoring stage crew)
  Barry Fawcett (Scoring stage crew)
  Paramount Pictures Scoring Stage M (Addl score rec at)
  Tamar Chammou (Mus coord)
  Epic/SONY Soundtrax (Soundtrack available on)
Sound: David Lee (Sd mixer)
  Erv Copestake (Sd mixer, addl photog)
  Denis Bellingham (Boom op)
  Maurice Schell (Supv sd ed)
  Michael Minkler (Re-rec mixer)
  Dominick Tavella (Re-rec mixer)
  Eytan Mirsky (Sd eff ed)
  Richard P. Cirincione (Sd eff ed)
  Jay Kessel (Asst sd ed)
  Laura Civiello (Dial ed)
  Gina R. Alfano (Supv ADR ed)
  Hal Levinsohn (ADR ed)
  Louis Bertini (ADR ed)
  Lynn Sable (Asst ADR ed)
  Jeffrey Stern (Supv foley ed)
  Bruce Kitzmeyer (Foley ed)
  David Boulton (ADR mixer)
  Bobby Johanson (ADR mixer)
  Paul Zydel (ADR mixer)
  Alex Raspa (ADR recordist)
  Krissopher Chevannes (ADR recordist)
  Brian Gallagher (ADR recordist)
  Nancy Cabrera (Foley artist)
  Paul Zydel (Foley recordist)
  Ryan Collison (Foley recordist)
  Alexandra Baltarzuk (Foley recordist)
  Mike Patrick (Machine room op)
  Robert Olari (Machine room op)
  David Kramer's Looping Group (Background voices)
  Sound One, Inc. (Mixed at)
Special Effects: Ted Ross (Spec eff coord)
  David Reaume (Asst head spec eff)
  Marcus Rait (Spec eff head on set)
  Brad Larkin (Spec eff asst head on set)
  Gordon Hudson (Spec eff pre-rig head)
  Skylar Wilson (Asst head pre-rig spec eff)
  Terry Doyle (Spec eff tech)
  Wayne Priest (Spec eff tech)
  Stani Veselinovic (Spec eff tech)
  Tony Morrone (Video dubbing)
  Toybox (Visual eff)
  Raymond Gieringer (Visual eff supv)
  Mark Dornfeld (Visual eff supv, Custom Film Effects)
  Randall Balsmeyer (Des/visual eff supv, Big Film Design)
  Michael Ellis (VP visual eff)
  Andy Sykes (Visual eff exec prod)
  Wendy Lanning (Visual eff prod)
  Susan Shin George (Visual eff prod, Custom Film Effects)
  Kathy Kelehan (Visual eff prod, Big Film Design)
  Cassia Buss (Visual eff coord)
  Kevin Chandoo (Data wrangler)
  Raymond Gieringer (On set supv)
  Jason Snea (On set supv/Lead digital compositor)
  Bojan Zoric (Digital matte painting)
  Dug Claxton (Digital compositing)
  Jay Field (Digital compositing)
  Mark Goldberg (Digital compositing)
  Michael Hatton (Digital compositing)
  Alex Boothby (Addl compositing)
  Marjorie Knight (Addl compositing)
  Brian Reid (Addl compositing)
  Eric Myles (Digital film tech)
  Andrew Pascoe (Digital film tech)
  Walt Biljan (2K spirit data transfers)
  Kenn Elliott (2K spirit data transfers)
  Bruce Jones (Visual eff dept mgr)
  Bill Varley (VP of engineering)
  Klaus Steden (Visual eff systems integrator)
  Marcus Beiner (Asst systems integrator)
  Mishka Gorodnitzky (CGI developer)
  Adrian Graham (CGI developer)
  Toybox Motion Control (Addl services provided by)
  Medallion/PFA Film & Video (Addl services provided by)
  Custom Film Effects (Addl visual eff and end title des)
  Lori Miller (Title des)
  Laurie Powers (Digital lead artist)
  Steve Caldwell (Digital artist)
  Shaina Holmes (Digital artist)
  Amani Williams (Digital artist)
  Chetan Deshmukh (Digital artist)
  J. John Corbett (Digital artist, Big Film Design)
  Amit Sethi (Digital artist, Big Film Design)
  Jennifer Cossetto (Digital artist, Film East Visual Effects)
  Adam Gass (Digital editorial)
  David Smithson (Digital I/O mgr)
  Big Film Design (Opening title des and addl visual eff)
  Film Effects, Inc. (Optical and digital eff)
  John Furniotis (Compositor, Film Effects Inc.)
  Alison Middaugh (Compositor, Film Effects Inc.)
  Robert Yoshioka (Compositor, Film Effects Inc.)
  Kevin McBride (Compositor, Film Effects Inc.)
  Film East Visual Effects (Addl visual eff)
  Walter Hart (Digital eff prod)
  Jim Rider (Digital eff supv)
  Kenneth Bradburd (Inferno compositor)
  Cyne-Byte Imaging Inc. (VFX scanning by)
  Alan Bak (Sr. prod supv, Cyne-Byte Imaging Inc.)
  Jeff Baker (Tech supv, Cyne-Byte Imaging Inc.)
  Drake Conrad (Scanning and rec, Cyne-Byte Imaging Inc.)
  Felix Heeb (Scanning and rec, Cyne-Byte Imaging Inc.)
  Chris Ross (Scanning and rec, Cyne-Byte Imaging Inc.)
  Mark Tureski (Scanning and rec, Cyne-Byte Imaging Inc.)
  Rick Hannigan (Project coord, Cyne-Byte Imaging Inc.)
  Diana Madureia (Prod coord, Cyne-Byte Imaging Inc.)
Dance: Rob Marshall (Choreographed by)
  John DeLuca (Choreographic supv)
  Cynthia Onrubia (Assoc choreographer)
  Joey Pizzi (Assoc choreographer)
  Denise Faye (Asst choreographer)
  Cynthia Onrubia (Mr. Gere's tap steps created by)
Make Up: Judi Cooper Sealy (Key hair stylist)
  Paula Fleet (Key hair, 2d unit)
  Veronica Ciandre (Asst hair stylist/Hair stylist addl photog 2d unit)
  Lucy Orton (Asst hair stylist)
  Paula Fleet (Asst hair stylist)
  Colleen Callaghan (Hair stylist for Ms. Zellweger)
  Dale Brownell (Hair stylist for Ms. Zellweger, addl photog)
  Karyn L. Huston (Hair stylist for Ms. Zeta-Jones)
  Lyndell Quiyou (Hair stylist for Mr. Gere)
  Jordan Samuel (Key makeup)
  Brian Hui (Makeup artist, 2d unit)
  Kathleen Graham (Makeup, addl photog 2d unit)
  Patricia Keighran (Makeup asst)
  Edelgard Pfluegl (Makeup asst)
  Jordan Samuel (Makeup for Ms. Zellweger)
  Cindy Williams (Makeup for Ms. Zeta-Jones)
  Luann Claps (Makeup for Mr. Gere)
Production Misc: Joyce Kozy King (Prod mgr)
  Laura Rosenthal (Casting)
  Ali Farrell (Casting)
  Tina Gerussi (Canadian casting)
  Jay Binder (New York dance casting)
  Jack Bowden (New York dance casting)
  Krista Bogetich (New York casting asst)
  Stephanie Gorin (Dance casting Canada)
  Jane Rogers (Extra's casting)
  Dylaine Bovaird (Extra's casting asst)
  Allison MacGillivray (Extra's casting asst)
  David Kramer (Voice casting)
  Susanna David (Scr supv)
  Joanne Harwood (Scr supv, 2d unit)
  Pasia Schonberg (Prod supv, addl photog)
  Jeff Robinson (Post prod supv)
  Shelley Boylen (Prod coord)
  Bob Wiggins (Prod coord, addl photog)
  Andreas Hass (Asst coord)
  Erica Hyatt (Post prod coord)
  Dana L. Ramsay (Travel coord)
  Melissa Girotti (Prod secy)
  Amy Barrie (Prod secy, addl photog)
  Robin Hayman (Prod asst)
  Scott Wouda (Prod asst)
  Arthur Roses (Asst to Mr. Marshall)
  Joy Ellison (Ms. Zeta-Jones' dialect coach)
  Maryann Dittmann (Asst to Mr. Richards)
  Monique Bell (Asst to Mr. Richards)
  Mark Nicholson (Asst to Mr. Meron & Mr. Zadan)
  Sarah Milliken (Asst to Mr. Carmody)
  David Greenbaum (Asst to Mr. Harvey Weinstein)
  Eric Robinson (Asst to Mr. Harvey Weinstein)
  Kelly Carmichael (Asst to Ms. Poster)
  Dan Huber (Asst to Ms. Goldstein)
  Ariana Garfinkel (Asst to Ms. Berman)
  Meredith Chislett (Asst to Ms. Zellweger)
  Jennifer Côté (Asst to Ms. Zeta-Jones)
  Lawanda Black (Asst to Ms. Latifah)
  Matthew Praet (Post prod intern)
  Lisa Lotti (Post prod intern)
  Michael Ilasi (Post prod intern)
  Sandra Silverstein (Post prod intern)
  Dave Rosenberg (Post prod intern)
  Marty Dejczak (Loc mgr)
  Brady Breen (Loc mgr/Coord, Chicago unit)
  David McIlroy (Asst loc mgr)
  Michael Harland (Loc prod asst)
  Brett Miller (Loc prod asst)
  Dorothy Precious (Accountant)
  Barbara Berger (Wake Productions accountant)
  Carol Rothel (1st asst accountant)
  Veronica Miller (1st asst accountant, addl photog)
  Darren Wilson (2d asst accountant)
  Aloma Taylor (2d asst accountant)
  Eva Marie MacGregor (3rd asst accountant)
  Rebecca Dawes (3rd asst accountant)
  Sandy Galloway (Payroll accountant)
  Michelle Montgomery (Payroll asst)
  Entertainment Partners, Inc. (Payroll service)
  Jane Tsighis (Post prod accountant)
  R. C. Baral (Post prod accounting services)
  Rachel Aberly (Unit pub)
  Norm Henderson (Transportation coord)
  Mac Day (Transportation coord, addl photog)
  Kevin Murphy (Transportation capt, addl photog 2d unit)
  Johnny Ozolins (Driver capt)
  Don Morley (Driver capt, 2d unit)
  Bob Sills (Driver capt, addl photog)
  Rudy Baccuchi (Driver)
  Pat Beaudrow (Driver)
  Jeff Bell (Driver)
  John Brown (Driver)
  John Brunt (Driver)
  John Cocks (Driver)
  Dave Cotton (Driver)
  Frank Eldridge (Driver)
  Ken Frenette (Driver)
  Matt Garland (Driver)
  Ron Hines (Driver)
  Stuart Hughes (Driver)
  Michael K. Jones (Driver)
  Scott Magee (Driver)
  Shaun Magee (Driver)
  Don Morley (Driver)
  Jeff Peebles (Driver)
  Doug Perry (Driver)
  Bill Tataryn (Driver)
  Maurice Tremblay (Driver)
  Steve Couto (Main truck package driver, 2d unit)
  David Kinnersly, Starcraft (Craft service)
  Angela Penny (Craft service, addl photog 2d unit)
  Kevin Patrick Allen (Server)
  Sari Miettinen (Server)
  Coralie Nott (Server)
  Jeremy Ladner (Server)
  Capers catering (Catering)
  Shaire Stevenson (Catering)
  By David's (Catering)
  David Mintz (Catering)
  John Doyle (Catering)
  Karen G. Fairbank Esq. (Prod legal)
  Bebe Reynolds (Prod legal asst)
  Kevin Duguay (Medical therapist)
  Karla McConnell (Medical therapist)
  Terri Reynolds (Medical therapist)
  Phil Lamont (Medical therapist)
  Pam Rousakis (Wake productions bus affairs)
  HSBC Bank, USA (Banking services)
  Richard Eisenberg, Eric Shonz & Keri Winters (Insurance)
  AON/Ruben Winkler Entertainment Insurance Brokers (Insurance)
Stand In: Steve Lucescu (Stunt coord)
  Decker Ladouceur Cirque Sublime (Acrobat coach)
  Brook Patterson (Ms. Zellweger's stand-in)
  Patriz Quas (Ms. Zeta-Jones' stand-in)
  Gary Douglas (Mr. Gere's stand-in)
Animation: Lon Molnar (Anim supv)
  Mark Davies (3D anim)
  Paul George (3D anim)
  Geoff Scott (3D anim)
  Alex Stephan (3D anim)
Color Personnel: Chris Hinton (Col timer)
MPAA Rating: PG-13
Country: Canada and United States
Language: English

Music: “Tap Dance,” written and performed by Perry Cavari; “Overture” and “Exit Music” written by John Kander, published by Unichappell Music, Inc. (BMI) and “Chicago” by Fred Fisher, published by Sony Music and EMI Music Publishing, ASCAP.
Songs: “And All That Jazz,” “When You’re Good to Mama,” “Cell Block Tango,” “Roxie,” “Me and My Baby,” “Razzle Dazzle,” “Nowadays," "Hot Honey Rag,” “Funny Honey,” “All I Care About Is Love,” “We Both Reached for the Gun,” “I Can’t Do It Alone,” “Mr. Cellophane” and “I Move On,” music by John Kander, lyrics by Fred Ebb, published by Unichappell Music, Inc. (BMI); “Raisin' the Roof,” music by Jimmy McHugh, lyrics by by Dorothy Fields, published by Aldi Music Company and EMI Music Publishing, ASCAP.
Composer: Perry Cavari
  Fred Ebb
  Dorothy Fields
  Fred Fisher
  John Kander
  Jimmy McHugh
Source Text: Based on the musical Chicago , book by Bob Fosse and Fred Ebb, music by John Kander, lyrics by Fred Ebb, directed and choreographed for the stage by Bob Fosse, produced on the stage by Robert Fryer, James Cresson and Martin Richards, in association with Joseph Harris and Ira Bernstein, lyrics and music published by Unichappell Music, Inc. (New York, 3 Jun 1975), which was based on the play Chicago by Maurine Dallas Watkins (New York, 30 Dec 1926).
Authors: Bob Fosse
  James Cresson
  Joseph Harris
  Robert Fryer
  Martin Richards
  Fred Ebb
  Ira Bernstein
  Maurice Dallas Watkins

Copyright Claimant Copyright Date Copyright Number
KALIS Productions GmbH & Co. KG 0/0/2002 dd/mm/yyyy  

PCA NO: 39516
Physical Properties: Sd: Dolby Digital; dts Digital Sound; SDDS Sony Dynamic Digital Sound in selected theatres
  col: Deluxe Toronto; Kodak motion picture film
  gauge: 35mm

Genre: Musical comedy
Sub-Genre: Historical
Subjects (Major): Chicago (IL)
  Prison matrons
  United States--History--Social life and customs, 1921-1929
Subjects (Minor): Arrests
  False arrests
  Impersonation and imposture
  Jazz music
  Love affairs
  Press conferences
  Radio broadcasting

Note: The film has no opening credits. After the Miramax Films name and logo appears, the next screen is an extreme closeup of Renée Zellweger’s eye, which dissolves into the letter C in a marquee lighting rendition of Chicago . The action begins as Taye Diggs, who portrays the "Bandleader," recites the dancer’s count “5-6-7-8,” a trademark phrase of Bob Fosse, director and choreographer of the successful 1975 Broadway musical play on which the film is based. The dialogue ends as it started, with Diggs repeating “5-6-7-8.” The exit music then begins as the title re-appears.
       Following the director, screenwriter and producers’ credits, the names of the principal cast appear, on individual screens, in the following order: Renée Zellweger, Catherine Zeta-Jones, and Richard Gere, Queen Latifah, John C. Reilly, Lucy Liu, Taye Diggs, Colm Feore, Christine Baranski, Dominic West, Mýa Harrison, Deidre Goodwin, Denise Faye, Ekaterina Chtchelkanova [and] Susan Misner. As the actors’ names appear, clips of their scenes from the film are shown. Following a number of additional principal production credits, the cast and character names are presented, listed in order of appearance. The remaining credits roll after the cast.
       After the song and soundtrack credits, the following statements appear: “Richard Gere’s singing and dancing performed by Richard Gere; Renée Zellweger’s singing and dancing performed by Renée Zellweger; Catherine Zeta-Jones’ singing and dancing performed by Catherine Zeta-Jones.” Danny Elfman is credited onscreen twice, first with “Original score and music by,” then again with “Original score and music written and produced by.” There is an onscreen dedication in the end credits that reads “Dedicated to Bob Fosse, Gwen Verdon and Robert Fryer.” Fosse died in 1987; Verdon, who starred as "Roxie Hart" in her long-time collaborator and ex-husband Fosse’s musical, died in 2000 and Fryer, who produced the show on stage, died in 1987. Special thanks are also given to a number of individuals and institutions, including the City of Toronto, where the film was shot. Acknowledgment is also given to F.I.L.M. Archives and Getty Images for stock footage that was used in the black and white montage of Roxie's publicity campaign.
       After Chicago 's Los Angeles premiere on 10 Dec 2002, its first public showing took place on 19 Dec at the Camelot Theater in Palm Springs, CA, as an early “kickoff” event for the Jan 2003 Palm Springs Film Festival. The film opened in limited release in the UK on 26 Dec 2002, and opened on fifty-five screens in New York, Los Angeles and selected North American cities on 27 Dec 2002, in order to qualify for Academy Award consideration. The number of screens on which the film was shown increased to seventy-seven on 3 Jan 2003, with additional screens added on successive Fridays until the picture was released widely throughout North America on 7 Feb 2003.
       Development of the film version of Chicago , which co-starred Chita Rivera (who had a brief role in the film as prison inmate “Nickie”) as “Velma Kelly” and Jerry Orbach as “Billy Flynn,” began shortly after the opening of the critically and commercially successful Broadway show on 3 Jun 1975. The following information about the production was obtained from press information, news items in Hollywood trade publications and feature articles in various newspapers and magazines:
       The earliest news item found on a possible film adaptation of the musical was 18 Sep 1975, when Liza Minnelli, who had recently filled in for Verdon in the Broadway production, and had earlier won an Oscar for her performance in the 1972, Fosse-directed adaptation of Cabaret , mentioned in an interview that she would appear in the screen adaptation of Chicago . Other news items in the late 1970s indicated that Shirley MacLaine, who starred in Fosse’s first film as a director, the 1969 adaptation of the Broadway musical Sweet Charity , might co-star with Minnelli, and that Martin Scorsese, who had directed Minnelli in the film musical New York, New York in 1977, would direct. Verdon was mentioned in some news items at that time as the possible choreographer of the film.
       In 1979, it was announced that Martin Richards, head of Producer Circle Co. was to produce the film, partnered with Allan Carr, who had produced the musical box office hit Grease in 1978. At that time, Broadway and Hollywood writers-composers Betty Comden and Adolph Green were mentioned as possible screenwriters for the film, which would have eight new songs, and was to begin production in Jan 1980. Throughout 1979, additional news items mentioned that Fryer would co-produce the film version of Chicago on a $10,000,000 budget, along with Richards and his partner, Mary Lea Johnson, and Carr. In 1979, according to George Christy’s “The Great Life” column in HR , Frank Sinatra was named as a possible choice to play Flynn. Several news items in 1979 noted that Minnelli was set to play Velma, co-starring with Goldie Hawn as Roxie. Other actors mentioned in 1979 as potential cast members included Valerie Perrine, Ann Miller and Nancy Walker, in unspecified roles.
       In Jan 1981, a HR news item reported that Carr had hoped to shoot the film in Chicago, with interiors to be completed in Los Angeles and prison scenes to be shot in Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary. According to news articles in 1980 and 1981, at one time, Hawn wanted to produce, or co-produce, the film. A 7 May 1980 HR news item mentioned that Ralph Burns, who had recently won an Oscar for scoring All That Jazz , was to score Chicago . Other news items in 1982 indicate that Arthur Laurents was to write the script, and that William Friedkin was to direct. Broadway director Nicholas Hytner was mentioned as the director in May 1988. A 1 Jun 1988 DV article also noted that Kathy Bates was being sought for the role of “Matron Mama Morton."
       Although some news items throughout the 1970s indicated that Fosse had decided not to direct the film adaptation of Chicago , some suggested that he was still considering the project but felt that he did not have the right “hook” for the production. Later feature articles speculated that Fosse gave up in frustration over the lengthy development stage of the project and instead turned his attention to directing the semi-autobiographical All That Jazz . That film, with a title derived from Chicago ’s most famous song, incorporates backstage scenes of the protagonist, a Fosse-like character, directing and choreographing a Broadway musical suggestive of Chicago .
       Although Carr, who died in 1999, was no longer mentioned as affiliated with the production after the mid-1980s, it is unclear at which point he left the project. Miramax head Harvey Weinstein became actively involved as a co-producer with Richards in late 1994, according to contemporary news items. Directors variously reported as being sought for the project throughout the 1990s include Baz Luhrmann, Miloš Forman, Alan Parker, David Fincher, Robert Iscove and Sam Mendes. Rob Marshall was signed as the film’s director in early 2001. Marshall, who made his feature film debut with Chicago , had previously worked on the stage and had directed the television adaptation of the musical Annie in 1999.
       In the mid-1990s, writer Larry Gelbart was hired to write a screenplay for the film, although playwright Wendy Wasserstein was also mentioned in Hollywood trade papers as writing a draft of the script. Several news items and columns, such as Liz Smith’s syndicated columns, suggested that Gelbart’s screenplay was not considered “hot” enough by Hytner, who was again connected to the project. Although Gelbart disputed the accusations, the adaptation assignment eventually went to Bill Condon, the only screenwriter credited on the film. Gelbart was listed on numerous HR “in development” and “preproduction” charts and both Gelbart and Wasserstein were listed on the initial DV production chart, but the extent of their contributions to the completed film has not been determined.
       As late as the late-1990s, Hawn, who was still frequently mentioned in connection with the film, was said to be set for the lead. From 1994 through 1999, Madonna was mentioned in many news items and feature articles as being “set” for the project in the role of Velma. A 2 Feb 1999 HR "in development" chart listed the film as starring Madonna and Hawn, with a script by Gelbart, and indicated that it was to be shot in London. Various other actresses were mentioned to be wanted for, or under consideration for, starring roles in the film. According to Liz Smith columns in the late 1990s, Barbra Streisand was offered the role of Velma by Weinstein but turned it down. As stated in news items in the late 1990s, 2000 and 2001, a number of other actresses were under consideration for the leads, among them Bette Midler, Nicole Kidman, Toni Collette, Michelle Pfeiffer, Gwyneth Paltrow, Jennifer Lopez, Cameron Diaz, Britney Spears, Charlize Theron, Pam Grier and Bebe Neuwirth, who starred as Velma in the 1996 Broadway revival of the play. According to a Sep 2002 NYT feature article on the film, Marshall worked with as many as ten actresses before selecting Zellweger for Roxie in Aug 2001.
       Other casting notices in trade publications included Rosie O’Donnell for the role of Mama Morton, and again mentioned Bates as a contender for the role. Names mentioned in news items for the role of Billy included John Travolta, Robert De Niro, Kevin Spacey, Kevin Kline and Hugh Jackman. Names mentioned for the role of Amos Hart included Joel Grey, who also appeared in the 1996 revival, and Nathan Lane. According to a 19 Mar 2003 NYT article, singer Janet Jackson was, at one time, sought to write additional songs for the film.
       Rehearsals began for the film in the fall of 2001. According to a Jan 2003 interview with Marshall printed in the LADN , the director said that rehearsals lasted for approximately six weeks, after which the cast recorded their songs. Principal photography began in Toronto, Canada on 12 Dec 2001 [some sources list 10 Dec]. Although the film continued to appear on HR production charts through late Apr 2002, Marshall stated in the interview that the film had a sixty-day production schedule. A few exteriors for the film were also shot in Chicago. According to a 17 Jan 2003 article in Entertainment Weekly , the film's final production cost was $45 million.
       In interviews, Marshall and Condon stated that they did not want the film to imitate Fosse’s stage production, but wanted to retain its essence while opening it up and modernizing it. The stage production, which was subtitled “A Musical Vaudeville,” was characterized by sparse sets and largely black and white costumes, whereas the film has numerous lavish sets and costumes. Most of the film’s musical numbers are ironic, fantasy representations of what is happening in the story, or in Roxie’s imagination. Many of the juxtapositions of fantasy and reality are cinematic interpretations of Fosse’s stage presentation, which used different levels and sections of the proscenium to present opposing dialogue and situations.
       Most of the film’s numbers are announced by the Bandleader, as if he is introducing a vaudeville act. Shots of an audience, often applauding appreciatively or laughing at what is being presented, are frequently intercut with the musical numbers. The film’s songs are also intercut with short scenes and quick shots of what is being said or developed in the main storyline. For example, as the Cell Block Tango number is presented, each of the women on Murderesses’ Row sings and dances a description of her crime, with the dancing periodically interrupted by a brief scene of the character in jail, verbally describing what happened.
       One of the most unusual numbers juxtaposes shots of Roxie and Billy talking to reporters after her arraignment, with a musical number featuring Billy as a ventriloquist and Roxie as his dummy. As the number develops, Billy is shown as a puppet master, directing the actions of Roxie, "Mary Sunshine" and the other reporters, who are all on strings. The puppet master theme was developed by Marshall for the film.
       Another noteworthy number in the film is “Razzle Dazzle” sung by Gere and staged by Marshall, who also choreographed the film, in a circus-like atmosphere. Several feature articles about the film noted that staging of the “Razzle Dazzle” number and the subsequent trial sequence were inspired by the 1995 O. J. Simpson murder trial, in which Simpson’s primary attorney, Johnnie Cochran, turned potentially damning evidence against the prosecution to win an acquittal for his client.
       Although most of the songs from the Broadway musical were included in the film, a notable exception was the number “Class,” sung by Mama Morton and Velma in the Broadway production. The number was shot for the film, but cut from the release after previews. According to an LAT article on 3 Jan 2003, after judging audience reaction to the number, Marshall felt that the lengthy song interfered with the rhythm of the courtroom sequence. However, several reviews mentioned the song as an unfortunate omission. Other songs from the Broadway production not in the film were: “A Little Bit of Good,” “My Own Best Friend,” “I Know a Girl” and “When Velma Takes the Stand.” Another feature of the stage show that was changed for the film was the character of Mary Sunshine. In the Broadway version, near the end of Roxie’s trial, Mary Sunshine is revealed to be a man in drag. This does not happen in the film, and some sources have speculated that the filmmakers did not feel it was necessary because exposing a “drag queen” was not as shocking to contemporary audiences as it was in 1975.
       The ballad “I Move On” was written especially for the film by John Kander and Fred Ebb. The music for “Tap Dance” was written for the film by Perry Cavari. Two old songs credited onscreen were “Chicago (That Toddlin’ Town)” written by Fred Fisher in 1922 and “Raisin’ the Roof,” written in 1927 with music by Jimmy McHugh and words by Dorothy Fields. “Raisin’ the Roof” was heard on a phonograph in the scene when “Fred Casely” is shot. Although “Chicago” was not in the film, melodic phrases from the song may have been incorporated into the soundtrack.
       The Maurine Dallas Watkins play Chicago , on which the Broadway musical and subsequent film were based, was inspired by two actual murder trials that took place in 1920s Chicago, while Watkins worked as reporter for the Chicago Tribune , giving a “feminine perspective” to crime stories. According to a Jan 2003 Chicago Tribune article reprinted in LAT , the case of Beulah Annan, who shot her lover, Harry Kelstedt, inspired the Roxie Hart story. Annan had a publicity-loving attorney named W. W. O’Brien and claimed that she and her lover both reached for the gun at the same time. She also (falsely) claimed to have been pregnant. Her headline news trial ended in an acquittal. The other inspiration for Watkins’ play was the case of Belva Gaertner, who shot her lover, Walter Law. Gaertner, similar to Velma Kelly in the film, claimed she had consumed too much gin to remember what happened, even though she was found holding the murder weapon and had Law’s blood on her clothes.
       Watkins' play was the basis of a 1928 silent film entitled Chicago , produced by DeMille Pictures, directed by Frank Urson and starring Phyllis Haver as Roxie, Eugene Pallette as “Fred Casely,” May Robson as Mama and Robert Edeson as Flynn. The 1942 Twentieth Century-Fox production of Roxie Hart was also based on the Watkins play. That film was directed by William Wellman and starred Ginger Rogers as Roxie, Adolphe Menjou as Flynn and George Montgomery as “Homer Howard,” a character created for the production. In the 1942 film, told in flashback, Roxie does not kill anyone but admits to murder for the publicity. At the end of the film, it is revealed that Roxie married Homer and became a housewife and mother of his six children.
       Fosse’s original Broadway production of the musical Chicago was revived in 1996, with long-time Fosse collaborator Ann Reinking choreographing the production in Fosse’s style and starring as Roxie, along with Neuwirth as Velma, James Naughton as Flynn and Joel Grey as Amos. The Broadway revival spawned a number of road company and foreign productions, including a 1998 London production staged by Mendes, that have run for several years and, according to several articles, helped to spur renewed interest in a film adaptation. Dancers Deidre Goodwin, Denise Faye and Sebastian LaCause also appeared in the 1996 production.
       In addition to being selected by AFI as one of the top ten films of 2002, Chicago won six Academy Awards: Best Picture, Supporting Actress, Zeta-Jones; Art Direction, John Myhre and Gordon Sim; Film Editor, Martin Walsh; Costume Design, Colleen Atwood; and Sound, Michael Minkler, Dominick Tavella and David Lee. Academy Award nominations also went to Marshall for Direction; Zellweger for Best Actress; Queen Latifah for Best Supporting Actress; Reilly for Best Supporting Actor; Kander and Ebb for Song (“I Move On”), Dion Beebe for Cinematography and Condon for Best Adapted Screenplay. Zeta-Jones won an award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Supporting Role from BAFTA, and the film won a BAFTA for Achievement in Sound.
       The film won three Golden Globe Awards: for Best Motion Picture--Musical or Comedy; Best Actress--Musical or Comedy, Zellweger, and Best Actor--Musical or Comedy, Gere. The film also garnered five additional Golden Globe nominations: for Best Actress--Musical or Comedy, Zeta-Jones; Best Supporting Actress, Queen Latifah; Best Supporting Actor, Reilly; Best Director, Marshall and Best Adapted Screenplay, Condon. Marshall won the DGA award for Outstanding Achievement in Feature Film directing, and the film's producers won the PGA's Darryl F. Zanuck Producer of the Year Award. The film garnered three SAG awards: Best Ensemble Cast, Best Actress (Zellweger) and Best Supporting Actress (Zeta-Jones). Gere received a nomination from SAG for Best Lead Actor in a Movie, and Queen Latifah was nominated for a Best Supporting Actress award. Chicago was also nominated by The Broadcast Film Critics Association for Best Film and was named as one of the Top Ten Films of 2002 by the NYT and named Best Film of the year by the New York Film Critics, who also named Marshall Breakthrough Director of the year. Chicago was ranked 12th on AFI's list of the 25 Greatest Movie Musicals. 

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